Home / Music stuff / Catholic stuff / Homeschooling stuff / Book stuff / Links

(1) Cf. Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts, hiarimenti circa il valore vincolante dell'art. 66 del Direttorio per il inistero e la Vita dei Presbiteri (22 October 1994), in "Sacrum
inisterium" 2 (1995), p. 263.

(2) This introduction is common both to the "Ratio" and to the "Directory". It should always be included in both documents in the event of their being printed separately.

(3) Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 18.

(4) Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1581.

(5) Cf. ibidem, n. 1536.

(6) Cf. ibidem, n. 1538.

(7) Ibidem, n. 875.

(8) Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 28.

(9) Cf. ibidem, n. 20; CIC, canon 375, § 1.

(10) Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 876.

(11) Cf. ibidem, n. 877.

(12) Cf. ibidem, n. 878.

(13) Ibidem, n. 879.

(14) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 29; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Ad pascendum (15 August 1972), AAS 64 (1972), p. 534.

(15) Moreover, he also describes several of the sixty who collaborated with him as deacons: Timothy (1 Thes 3:2), Epophros (Col 1:7), Tychicus (Col 3:7; Eph 6:2).

(16) Cf. Epistula ad Philadelphenses, 4; Epistula ad Smyrnaeos, 12, 2: Epistula ad Magnesios, 6, 1; F. X. Funk (ed.) Patres Apostolici, Tubingae 1901; pp. 266-267; 286-287; 234-235; 244-245.

(17) Cf. Didascalia Apostolorum (Syriac), capp. III, XI: A. Vööbus (ed.) The Didascalia Apostolorum (Syriac with English translation), CSCO, vol. I, n. 402 (t. 176), pp. 29-30; vol. II, n. 408 (t. 180), pp. 120-129; Didascalia Apostolorum, III, 13 (19), 1-7: F. X. Funk (ed.), Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum, Paderborn 1906, I, pp. 212-216.

(18) Cf. canons 32 and 33 of the Council of Elvira (300303): PL 84, 305; canons 16 (15), 18, 21 of the first Council of Arles. CCL, 148, pp. 12-13; canons 15, 16, and 18 of the Council of Nicea: Conciliorum
Oecumenicorum Decreta, bilingual edition of G. Alberigo, G.L. Dossetti, Cl. Leonardi, P. Prodi, cons. of H. Jedin, ed. Dehoniane, Bologna 1991, pp. 13-15.

(19) In the first period of Christianity, every local Church needed a number of deacons proportionate to her numbers so that they might be known and helped (cf. Didascalia Apostolorum, III, 12 (16): F. X. Funk, ed. cit., I, p. 208). In Rome Pope St Fabian (236-250) divided the City into seven zones (or "regiones", later called "diaconiae") in charge of each of which was placed a deacon ("regionarius") for the promotion of charity and assistance to the poor. Analogous diaconal structures were to be found in many cities of the east and west during the third and fourth centuries.

(20) Cf. Council of Trent, Session XXIII, Decreta de Reformatione, canon 17: Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Decreta, ed. cit., p. 750.

(21) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution, Lumen gentium, 29.

(22) AAS 59 (1967), pp. 697-704.

(23) AAS 60 (1968), pp. 369-373.

(24) AAS 64 (1972), pp. 534-540.

(25) Ten canons speak explicitly of permanent deacons: 236; 276, § 2, 3o; 288; 1031, §§ 2-3; 1032, § 3; 1035, § 1; 1037; 1042, 1o; 1050, 3o.

(26) Cf. CIC, canon 1031, § 1.

(27) Paul VI, Apostolic Letter, Sacrum diaconatus ordinem (18 June 1968): AAS 59 (1967), p. 698.

(28) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 29; Decree Ad gentes, 16; Decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 17; Allocution of John Paul II of 16 March 1985, n. 1: Insegnamenti, VIII, 2 (1985), p. 648.

(29) Catechesis of John Paul II at the General Audience of 6 October 1993, n. 5, Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 954.

(30) "A particularly felt need behind the decision to restore the permanent diaconate was that of a greater and more direct presence of sacred ministers in areas such as the family, work, schools etc. as well as in the various ecclesial structures". Catechesis of John Paul II at the General Audience of 6 October 1993 n. 6, Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 954.

(31) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 29b.

(32) Cf. ibidem, Decree Ad gentes, 16.

(33) Ibidem, Decree Ad gentes, 16. Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1571.

***

(1) Cf Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem (18 June 1967): AAS 59 (1967), pp. 697-704. The Apostolic Letter, at Ch. II, which is dedicated to younger candidates, prescribes: "6. Young men who are to be trained for the office of deacon should go to a special institution where they can be tested, trained to live a truly evangelical life, and instructed on how to perform usefully the duties of their future state. 9. The period of preparation for the diaconate as such should run for a period of at least three years. The course of studies should be arranged in such a way that the candidates make orderly and gradual progress toward gaining an understanding of the various duties of the diaconate and toward being able to carry them out effectively. The whole course of studies might well be so planned that in the last year special training will be given in the principal functions to be carried out by the deacon.  10. In addition, there should be practice in teaching the fundamentals of the Christian religion to children and others of the faithful, in teaching people to sing sacred music and lead them in it, in reading the books of Scripture at gatherings of the faithful, in giving talks to the people, in administering those sacraments which deacons may administer, in visiting the sick and, in general, in carrying out the ministries which may be required of them". The same Apostolic Letter, at Chapter III, which is dedicated to older candidates, prescribes: "14. It is desirable for these deacons, too, to acquire a good deal of doctrine, as was said in nos. 8, 9 and 10 above, or at least for them to have the knowledge which the episcopal conference may judge they will need to fulfil their functions properly. They should therefore be admitted to a special institution for a certain length of time in order to learn all they will have to know to carry out worthily the office of deacon. 15. But if for some reason this cannot be done, then the candidate should be entrusted to some priest of outstanding virtue who will take a special interest in him and teach him, and who will be able to testify to his maturity and prudence".

(2) The Circular Letter of the Congregation indicated that courses must take into consideration the study of sacred scripture, dogma, moral, canon law, liturgy, "technical training, in order to prepare the  candidates for certain activities of the ministry, such as psychology, catechetical pedagogy, public speaking, sacred song, organization of Catholic groups, ecclesiastical administration, keeping up to date the registers of baptism, confirmation, marriage, deaths, etc.".

(3) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum (15 August 1972), VII b): AAS 64 (1972), p. 540.

(4) Cf John Paul II, Post-synodal Ap. Exhort. Pastores dabo vobis (25 March 1992), 12: AAS 84 (1992), pp. 675-676.

(5) Cf Ecum. Council Vat. II, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 28; 29.

(6) The Pontificale Romanum De Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, Editio typica altera, Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1990, p. 101, cites at n. 179 of the "Praenotanda", relative to the ordination of deacons, the expression "in ministerio Episcopi ordinantur" taken from the Traditio apostolica, 8 (SCh, 11bis, pp. 58-59), as taken from the Constitutiones Ecclesiae Aegypticae III, 2: F. X. Funk (ed.), Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum, II, Paderbornae 1905, p. 103.

(7) "(They should be) compassionate, industrious, walking according to the truth of the Lord, who was the servant of all" (St Polycarp, Epist. ad Philippenses, 5, 2: F. X. Funk [ed.], Patres Apostolici, I, Tubingae 1901, pp. 300-302).

(8) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, Introduction: l.c., pp. 534-538.

(9) Cf Pontificale Romanum De Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, n. 207: ed. cit., pp. 115-122.

(10) Cf Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1570.

(11) Ibidem, n. 1588.

(12) Cf Ecum. Council Vat. II, Decr. Christus Dominus, 15.

(13) Cf C.I.C., can. 266.

(14) Cf Ecum. Council Vat. II, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 29.

(15) Cf Pontificale Romanum De Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, n. 210: ed. cit., p. 125.

(16) Cf Ecum. Council Vat. II, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 29.

(17) Cf ibidem.

(18) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, I, 1: l.c., p. 699.

(19) Cf C.I.C., can. 276, § 2, 3o.

(20) Cf ibidem, can. 1031, § 3.

(21) Ecum. Council Vat. II, Decr. Optatam totius, 1.

(22) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, VII, 32: l.c., p. 703.

(23) Ibidem, VII, 35: l.c., p. 704.

(24) Ecum. Council Vat. II, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 64.

(25) Ibidem, 8.

(26) Equivalent to the Diocesan Bishop in this regard are those to whom the following have been entrusted: territorial prelature, territorial abbey, apostolic vicariate, apostolic prefecture and a stably erected apostolic administration (cf C.I.C., cans. 368; 381, § 2) as well as the personal prelature (cf C.I.C., cans. 266, § 1; 295) and the military ordinariate (cf John Paul II, Apost. Const. Spirituali militum curae [21 April 1986], art. I, § 1; art. II, § 1: AAS 78 [1986], pp. 482; 483).

(27) Cf C.I.C., cans. 1025; 1029.

(28) This also includes the director of the specific house of formation, wherever it exists (cf C.I.C., can. 236, 1o).

(29) John Paul II, Post-synodal Ap. Exhort. Pastores dabo vobis, 68: l.c., pp. 775-776.

(30) Ibidem, 69: l.c., p. 778.

(31) Ibidem, 36: l.c., pp. 715-716.

(32) Catechismus ex decreto Concilii Tridentini ad Parochos, pars II, c. 7, n. 3, Turin 1914, p. 288.

(33) Didachè, 15, 1: F. X. Funk (ed.), Patres Apostolici, I, o.c., pp. 32-35.

(34) St Polycarp, Epist. ad Philippenses, 5, 1-2: F. X. Funk (ed.), Patres Apostolici, I, o.c., pp. 300-302.

(35) C.I.C., can. 1029. Cf can. 1051, 1o.

(36) Cf Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, II, 8: l.c., p. 700.

(37) Cf C.I.C., cans. 285, §§ 1-2; 289; Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, III, 17: l.c., p. 701.

(38) C.I.C., can. 1031, § 2. Cf Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, II, 5; III, 12: l.c., pp. 699; 700. Can. 1031, § 3 prescribes that "Bishops' Conferences may issue a regulation which requires a later
age".

(39) Cf C.I.C., cans. 1040-1042. The irregularities (perpetual impediments) listed by can. 1041 are: 1) any form of insanity or other psychological infirmity, because of which he is, after experts have been
consulted, judged incapable of properly fulfilling the ministry; 2) the offences of apostasy, heresy or schism; 3) attempted marriage, even a civil marriage; 4) willful homicide or actually procured abortion; 5) grave mutilation of self or others, and attempted suicide; 6) illicit completion of acts of order. The simple impediments, listed by can. 1042, are: 1) the exercise of an office or administration forbidden to, or inappropriate to, the clerical state; 2) the state of being a neophyte (except when the Ordinary decides otherwise).

(40) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, II, 4: l.c., p. 699. Cf Ecum. Council Vat. II, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 29.

(41) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, III, 13: l.c., p. 700.

(42) Ibidem, III, 11: l.c., p. 700. Cf C.I.C., cans. 1031, § 2; 1050, 3o.

(43) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, III, 16: l.c., p. 701; Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, VI: l.c., p. 539; C.I.C., can. 1087.

(44) The Circular Letter, Prot. n. 26397 of 6 June 1997, of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments envisages that one only of the following conditions be sufficient for
obtaining dispensation from the impediment found in can. 1087: the great and proven usefulness of the ministry of the deacon to the diocese to which he belongs; that he has children of such a tender age as to be in need of motherly care; that he has parents or parents in law who are elderly and in need of care.

(45) Cf Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, VII, 32-35: l.c., pp. 703-704.

(46) Cf Idem, Ap. Lett. Ecclesiae sanctae (6 August 1966), I, 25, § 1: AAS 58 (1966), p. 770.

(47) Cf C.I.C., can. 1026.

(48) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, Introduction; cf I a): l.c., pp. 537-538. Cf C.I.C., can. 1034, § 1. The rite for admission among the candidates for Holy Order is found in the Pontificale Romanum De
Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, Appendix, II: ed. cit., pp. 232ff.

(49) Cf C.I.C., cans. 1016; 1019.

(50) Cf ibidem, can. 1034, § 1; Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, I a): l.c., p. 538.

(51) Cf C.I.C., can. 236 and numbers 41-44 of the present Ratio.

(52) C.I.C., can. 236, 1o. Cf Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, II, 6: l.c., p. 699.

(53) Ibidem, II, 7: l.c., p. 699.

(54) C.I.C., can. 236, 2o.

(55) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, III, 15: l.c., p. 701.

(56) C.I.C., can. 1035, § 1.

(57) Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, II: l.c., p. 539; Ap. Lett. Ministeria quaedam (15 August 1972), XI: AAS 64 (1972), p. 533.

(58) Idem, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, Introduction: l.c., p. 538.

(59) Cf Idem, Ap. Lett. Ministeria quaedam, VIII a): l.c., p. 533.

(60) Cf Pontificale Romanum De Institutione Lectorum et Acolythorum, Editio typica, Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1972.

(61) Cf Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ministeria quaedam, X: l.c., p. 533; Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, IV: l.c., p. 539.

(62) C.I.C., can. 1035, § 2.

(63) Ibidem, can. 1036. Cf Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, V: l.c., p. 539.

(64) Cf C.I.C., can. 1050.

(65) Cf ibidem, cans. 1050, 3o; 1031, § 2.

(66) Ibidem, can. 1051, 1o.

(67) Ibidem, can. 1051, 2o.

(68) Cf ibidem, can. 1028. For the obligations which ordinands assume with the diaconate, see canons 273-289. In addition, for married deacons, there is the impediment to contracting new marriages (cf can. 1087).

(69) Cf ibidem, can. 1037; Paul VI, Ap. Lett. Ad pascendum, VI: l.c., p. 539.

(70) Cf Pontificale Romanum De Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, n. 177: ed. cit., p. 101.

(71) Cf C.I.C., can. 833, 6o; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Professio fidei et Iusiurandum fidelitatis in suscipiendo officio nomine Ecclesiae exercendo: AAS 81 (1989), pp. 104-106; 1169.

(72) C.I.C., can. 1015, § 1.

(73) Cf ibidem, can. 1019.

(74) Pontificale Romanum De Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, cap. III, De Ordinatione diaconorum: ed. cit., pp. 100-142.

(75) Cf C.I.C., cans. 1010-1011.

(76) Ibidem, can. 1039.

(77) John Paul II, Post-synodal Ap. Exhort. Pastores dabo vobis, 43: l.c., p. 732.

(78) Ibidem: l.c., pp. 732-733.

(79) Cf ibidem: l.c., p. 733.

(80) Idem, Encycl. Lett. Redemptor hominis (4 March 1979), 10: AAS 71 (1979), p. 274.

(81) Cf Idem, Post-synodal Ap. Exhort. Pastores dabo vobis, 44: l.c., p. 734.

(82) Cf ibidem: l.c., pp. 734-735.

(83) Cf Idem, Ap. Exhort. Familiaris consortio (22 November 1981): AAS 74 (1982), pp. 81-191.

(84) Idem, Post-synodal Ap. Exhort. Pastores dabo vobis, 44: l.c., p. 735.

(85) Cf the presentation of the Book of the Gospels, in Pontificale Romanum De Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, n. 210: ed. cit., p. 125.

(86) This refers to the Apostolic Letter of Paul VI, Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, n. 22: l.c., pp. 701-702.

(87) Cf Congregation for Catholic Education, Circ. Lett. Come è a conoscenza (16 July 1969), p. 2.

(88) Cf ibidem, p. 3.

(89) John Paul II, Post-synodal Ap. Exhort. Pastores dabo vobis, 57: l.c., p. 758.

(90) Cf Congregation for Catholic Education, Circ. Lett. Come è a conoscenza, p. 3.

(91) Cf Ecum. Council Vat. II, Decr. Presbyterorum ordinis, 10; Decr. Ad gentes, 20.

(92) Didascalia Apostolorum, III, 13 (19), 3: F. X. Funk (ed.), Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum, I, o.c., pp. 214-215.

***
(34) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 28a.

(35) Cf. CIC, canon 1034, § 1; Paul VI, Ad Pascendum, I, a: l.c., 538.

(36) Cf. CIC, canons 265-266.

(37) Cf. CIC, canons 1034, § 1, 1016, 1019; Apostolic Constitution Spirituali Militum Curae, VI, §§ 3-4;
CIC, canon 295, § 1.

(38) Cf. CIC, canons 267-268c § 1.

(39) Cf. CIC, canon 271.

(40) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 30:l.c., 703.

(41) Cf. CIC, canon 678, §§ 1-3; 715; 738; cf. also Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VII, 33-35: l.c., 704.

(42) Letter of the Secretariat of State to the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Prot. N. 122.735, of 3 January 1984.

(43) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Decree Christus Dominus, n. 15; Paul VI Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, 23; l.c., 702.

(44) Pontificale Romanum, De Ordinatione Episcopi, Presbyterorum et Diaconorum, n. 201, (editio typica altera), Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1990, p. 110; cf. CIC, canon 273.

(45) "Those dominated by an outlook of contestation or of opposition to authority cannot adequately fulfil the functions of the diaconate. The diaconate can only be conferred on those who believe in the value of the pastoral mission of bishops and priests and in the assistance of the Holy Spirit who helps them in their activities and in the decisions they take. It should be recalled that the deacon must ?profess respect and obedience to the bishop'. The service of the deacon is directed to a particular Christian community for which he should develop a profound attachment both to its mission and divine institution" (Catechesis of John Paul II at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 2, Insegnamenti, XVI, 2, [1993], p. 1055).

(46) CIC, canon 274, § 2.

(47) "Among the duties of the deacon there is that of ?promoting and sustaining the apostolic activities of the laity'. Being more present and active in the secular world than priests, deacons should strive to
promote greater closeness between ordained ministers and activities of the laity for the common service of the Kingdom of God" (Catechesis of John Paul II at the General Audience of 13 October 1993, n. 5,
Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 [1993], pp. 1002-1003); cf. CIC, canon 275.

(48) Cf. CIC, canon 282.

(49) Cf. CIC, canon 288 referring to canon 284.

(50) Cf. CIC, canon 284; Directory for the Ministry and Life of Priests of the Congregation for the Clergy (31 January 1994), pp. 66-67. Clarification of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts on the binding character of article 66 (22 October 1994) in Sacrum Ministerium, 2 (1995), p. 263.

(51) Cf CIC, canon 669.

(52) Cf. CIC, canon 278, §§ 1-2, explicating canon 215.

(53) Cf. CIC, canon 278, § 3 and canon 1374; also the declaration of the German Bishops' Conference "The Church and Freemasonry" (28 February 1980).

(54) Congregation for the Clergy, Quidam Episcopi (8 March 1982), IV: AAS 74 (1982), pp. 642-645.

(55) Cf. CIC, canon 299, § 3, and canon 304.

(56) Cf CIC, canon 305.

(57) Cf. Allocution of John Paul II to the Bishops of Zaïre on "Ad Limina" visit, 30 April 1983, Insegnamenti, VI, 1 (1983), pp. 112-113. Allocution to Permanent Deacons (16 March 1985), Insegnamenti, VIII, 1 (1985), pp. 648-650. Cf. also idem. Allocution at the ordination of eight new
Bishops in Kinshasa (4 May 1980), 3-5 Insegnamenti, 1 (1980), pp. 1111-1114; Catechesis at the General Audience of 6 October 1983 Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1983), pp. 951-955.

(58) Lumen Gentium, 33; cf. CIC, canon 225.

(59) Cf. CIC, canon 288, referring to canon 285, §§ 3-4.

(60) Cf. CIC, canon 288 referring to canon 286.

(61) Cf. CIC, canon 222, § 2, and also canon 225, § 2.

(62) Cf. CIC, canon 672.

(63) Cf. CIC, canon 287, § 1.

(64) Cf. CIC, canon 288.

(65) Cf. CIC, canon 287, § 2.

(66) Cf. CIC, canon 283.

(67) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, 21: l.c., 701.

(68) Cf. CIC, canon 281.

(69) "Since clerics dedicate themselves to the ecclesiastical ministry, they deserve the remuneration that befits their condition, taking into account the nature of their office and the conditions of time and place. It is to be such that it provides for the necessities of their life and for the just remuneration of those whose services they need" (CIC, canon 281, § 1).

(70) "Suitable provision is likewise to be made for such social welfare as they may need in infirmity, sickness or old age" (CIC, canon 281, § 2).

(71) CIC, canon 281, § 3. The canonical term "remuneration" as distinct from civil law usage, denotes more than a stipend in the technical sense of this term. It connotes that income, due in justice, which permits a decent upkeep, congruent with the ministry.

(72) Ibid., canon 1274, § 1.

(73) Ibid., canon 1274, § 2.

(74) Ibid., canon 281, § 1.

(75) Cf. ibidem, canon 281, § 3.

(76) Cf. ibid., canon 281, § 3.

(77) Cf. ibid., canons 290-293.

(78) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 29.

(79) John Paul II, Allocution to permanent deacons (16 March 1985), n. 2: Insegnamenti, VIII, 1 (1985), p. 649; cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution. Lumen Gentium, 29; CIC, canon 1008.

(80) Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity Directory on the applications of the principles and norms on ecumenism, (25 March 1993), 71: AAS 85 (1993), p. 1069; cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Communionis notio (28 May 1992), AAS 85 [1993], pp. 838f.

(81) Ibid., 70: l.c., p. 1068.

(82) Pontificale Romanum, n. 210: ed. cit., p. 125: "Accipe Evangelium Christi, cuius praeco effectus es; et vide, ut quod legeris credas, quod credideris doceas, quod docueris imiteris".

(83) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 29. "Deacons are also to serve the People of God in the ministry of the word, in union with the bishop and his presbyterium" (CIC, canon 757); "By their preaching, deacons participate in the priestly ministry" (John Paul II, Allocution to Priests, Deacons, Religious and Seminarians in the Basilica of the Oratory of St. Joseph, Montreal, Canada (11 September 1984), n. 9: Insegnamenti, VII, 2 (1984), p. 436.

(84) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Decree Presbyterorum Ordinis, 4.

(85) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 25; Congregation for Catholic Education, circular letter Come è a conoscenza; CIC, canon 760.

(86) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 25a; Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 10a.

(87) Cf. CIC, canon 753.

(88) Cf. ibid., canon 760.

(89) Cf. ibid., canon 769.

(90) Cf Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani, n. 61: Missale Romanum, Ordo lectionis Missae, Praenotanda, n. 8, 24 and 50: ed. typica altera, 1981.

(91) Cf. CIC, canon 764.

(92) Congregation for the Clergy, Directory on the Ministry and Life of Priests, Tota Ecclesia (31 January 1994), nn. 45-47: l.c., 43-48.

(93) Cf. Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani, nn. 42, 61; Congregation for the Clergy, Pontifical Council for the Laity, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Congregation for Bishops, Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life, Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts, Instruction concerning some questions on the collaboration of the lay faithful in the ministry of priests, Ecclesiae de Mysterio (15 August 1997), art. 3.

(94) Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 35; cf. 52; CIC, canon 767, § 1.

(95) Cf. CIC, canon 779; cf. Congregation for the Clergy, General Directory for Catechesis, (15 agosto 1997) n. 216.

(96) Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation, Evangelii Nuntiandi, 8 December 1975): AAS 68 (1976), pp. 576.

(97) Cf. ibid., canons 804-805.

(98) Cf. ibid., canon 810.

(99) Cf. ibid., canon 761.

(100) Cf. ibid., canon 822.

(101) Cf. ibid., canon 823, § 1.

(102) Ibid., canon 831, §§ 1-2.

(103) Second Vatican Council, Decree Ad Gentes, 2a.

(104) Cf. CIC, canons 784, 786.

(105) Second Vatican Council, Decree Ad Gentes, 16; Pontificale Romanum, n. 207: ed. cit., p. 122 (Prex Ordinationis).

(106) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 29.

(107) Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 10.

(108) Ibid., 7d.

(109) Cf. ibid., 22, 3; CIC, canons 841, 846.

(110) Cf. CIC, canon 840.

(111) Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1570; cf. Caeremoniale Episcoporum, nn. 23-26.

(112) "Deacons have a share in the celebration of divine worship in accordance with the provisions of law" (CIC, canon 835, § 3).

(113) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 26-27.

(114) Cf. CIC, canon 846, § 1.

(115) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Constitutions Sacrosanctum Concilium, 28.

(116) Cf. CIC, canon 929.

(117) Cf. Institutio generalis Missalis Romani, nn, 81b, 300, 302; Institutio generalis Liturgiae Horarum, n. 255; Pontificale Romanum, nn. 23, 24, 28, 29, editio typica, Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1977, pp. 29 and 90; Rituale Romanum, n. 36, editio typica, Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1985, p. 18; Ordo Coronandi Imaginem Beatae Mariae Virginis, n. 12, editio typica, Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1981, p. 10; Congregation for Divine Worship, Directory for celebrations in the absence of a priest, Christi Ecclesia, n 38, in "Notitiae" 24 (1988), pp. 388-389; Pontificale Romanum, nn. 188: ("Immediate post Precem Ordinationis, Ordinati stola diaconali et dalmatica induuntur quo eorum ministerium abhinc in liturgia peragendum manifestatur") and 190; ed. cit., pp. 102, 103; Caeremoniale Episcoporum, n. 67, editio typica, Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1995, pp. 28-29.

(118) CIC, canon 861, § 1.

(119) Cf. ibid., canon 530, n. 1o.

(120) Cf. ibid., canon 862.

(121) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 22, 1: l.c., 701.

(122) Cf. Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani, nn. 61; 127-141.

(123) Cf. CIC, canon 930, § 2.

(124) Cf. ibid., canon 907; Congregation for the Clergy etc., Instruction Ecclesiae de Mysterio (15 August 1997), art. 6.

(125) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 22, 6: l.c., 702.

(126) Cf. CIC, canon 910, § 1.

(127) Cf. ibid., canon 911, § 2.

(128) Cf. ibid., canon 943 and also Pope Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 22, 3: l.c., 702.

(129) Cf. Congregation for Divine Worship, Directory for celebrations in the absence of a priest, Christi Ecclesia, n. 38: l.c., 388-389; Congregation for the Clergy etc., Instruction Ecclesiae de Mysterio (15
August 1997), art. 7.

(130) Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 73: AAS 74 (22 November, 1982), pp. 107-171.

(131) Cf. CIC, canon 1063.

(132) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Constitution Lumen Gentium 29; CIC, canon 1108, §§ 1-2; Ordo Celebrandi Matrimonii, ed. typica altera 1991, 24.

(133) Cf. CIC, canon 1111, §§ 1-2.

(134) Cf. ibidem, canon 137, §§ 3-4.

(135) Exultate Deo of the Council of Florence (DS 1325); Doctrina de sacramento extremae unctionis of the Council of Trent, cap. 3 (DS 1697) and cap. 4 de extrema unctione (DS 1719).

(136) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem II, 10: l.c.,699; Congregation for the Clergy etc., Instruction, Ecclesiae de Mysterio (15 August 1997), art. 9.

(137) Cf. CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 3o.

(138) Cf. Institutio Generalis Liturgiae Horarum, nn. 20; 255-256.

(139) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium 60; CIC, canon 1166 and canon 1168; Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1667.

(140) Cf. CIC, canon 1169, § 3.

(141) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem V, 22, 5: l.c., 702; also Ordo Exsequiarum, 19; Congregation for the Clergy etc., Instruction Ecclesiae de Mysterio (15 August 1997), art. 12.

(142) Cf. Rituale Romanum - De Benedictionibus, n. 18 c.: ed. cit, p. 14.

(143) Cf. CIC, canon 129, § 1.

(144) St. Polycarp, Epist. ad Philippenses, 5, 2; F. X. Funk (ed.), I, p. 300; cited in Lumen Gentium, 29.

(145) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem l.c., 698.

(146) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 29.

(147) Pontificale Romanum - De ordinatione Episcopi, presbyterorum et diaconorum, n. 207, p. 122 (Prex Ordinationis).

(148) Hippolytus, Traditio Apostolica, 8, 24; S. Ch. 11 bis pp. 58-63, 98-99; Didascalia Apostolorum (Syriac), chapters III and IX; A. Vööbus (ed) The "Didascalia Apostolorum" in Syriac (original text in Syriac with an English translation), CSCO vol. I, n. 402 (tome 176), pp. 29-30; vol. II, n. 408 (tome 180), pp. 120-129; Didascalia Apostolorum, III (19), 1-7: F. X. Funk (ed.), Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum, Paderbornae 1906, I, pp. 212-216; Second Vatican Council, Decree Christus Dominus, 13.

(149) Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 40-45.

(150) Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 22, 9; l.c., 702. Cf. John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 13 October 1993, n. 5: Insegnamenti XVI, 2 (1993), pp. 1000-1004.

(151) Cf. CIC, canon 494.

(152) Cf. CIC, canon 493.

(153) Cf. John Paul II, Address to the permanent deacons of the USA, Detroit (19 September 1987), n. 3, Insegnamenti, X, 3 (1987), p. 656.

(154) Cf. CIC, canon 157.

(155) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 27a.

(156) Cf. CIC, canon 519.

(157) Cf. CIC, canon 517, § 1.

(158) Cf. CIC, canon 517, § 2.

(159) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 22, 10; l.c., 702.

(160) Cf. CIC, canon 1248 § 2; Congregation for Divine Worship, Directory for celebrations in the absence of the priest, Christi Ecclesia, 29, l.c., 386.

(161) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 13 October 1993, n. 4: Insegnamenti XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1002.

(162) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 24; l.c., 702; CIC, canon 536.

(163) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 24; l.c., 702; CIC, canon 512, § 1.

(164) Cf. CIC, canon 463, § 2.

(165) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 28; Decree Christus Dominus, 27; Decree Presbyterorum Ordinis, 7; CIC, canon 495, § 1.

(166) CIC, canon 482.

(167) CIC, canon 1421, § 1.

(168) CIC, canon 1424.

(169) CIC, canon 1428, § 2.

(170) CIC, canon 1435.

(171) CIC, canon 483, § 1.

(172) CIC, canon 1420, § 4, canon 553 § 1.

(173) Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 2.

(174) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 5.

(175) Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 2b.

(176) Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 4a.

(177) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 40.

(178) Second Vatican Council, Decree Presbyterorum Ordinis, 12a.

(179) Second Vatican Council, Decree Ad Gentes, 16.

(180) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 1: Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1053.

(181) "All of Christ's faithful, each according to his or her own condition, must make a wholehearted effort to lead a holy life and to promote the growth of the Church and its continual sanctification" (CIC, canon 210).

(182) These "being at the service of the ministers of Christ and of the Church must keep themselves from all vice and be pleasing to God and dedicate themselves to those works considered good in the sight of man" (cf. 1 Tit 3; 8-18 and 12-13): Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 41; Cf. also Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 25: l.c., 702.

(183) "Clerics have a special obligation to seek holiness in their lives because they are consecrated to God by a new title through the reception of orders, and they are stewards of the mysteries of God in
the service of His people" (CIC, canon 276, § 1).

(184) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 2: Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1054.

(185) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 1. Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1054.

(186) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 1: Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1054.

(187) John Paul II allocution of 6 March 1985, n. 2: Insegnamenti, VIII, 1 (1985), p. 649. Post Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 3, 21: l.c., 661, 688.

(188) Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 16: l.c., 681.

(189) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 2: Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1055.

(190) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, V, 23: l.c., 702.

(191) Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis (4 March 1979), nn 13-17: AAS 71 (1979), pp. 282-300.

(192) Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, II, 8: l.c., 700.

(193) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 2: Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1054.

(194) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Decree Presbyterorum Ordinis, nn. 14 & 15: CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 1o.

(195) Second Vatican Council, Decree Presbyterorum Ordinis, 12.

(196) Pontificale Romanum - De Ordinatione Episcopi, presbyterorum et diaconorum, n. 210; ed. cit., p. 125.

(197) St Augustine, Sermones, 179, 1: PL 38, 966.

(198) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum 25; cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 26, 1; l.c., 703; CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 2o.

(199) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 25a.

(200) Cf. CIC, canon 833; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Professio fidei et iusiurandum fidelitatis in suscipiendo officio nomine Ecclesiae exercendo: AAS 81 (1989), pp. 104-106 and 1169.

(201) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 21.

(202) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 7.

(203) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 7.

(204) Second Vatican Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 59a.

(205) Cf. CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 2; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 26, 2: l.c., 703.

(206) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 26, 2: l.c., 703.

(207) Second Vatican Council, Decree Presbyterorum Ordinis, 5b.

(208) Cf. canon 276, § 2, n. 5o; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 26, 3: l.c., 703.

(209) Cf. CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 3o.

(210) Cf. CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 4o.

(211) Cf. CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 5o.

(212) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 23a.

(213) Second Vatican Council, Decree Christus Dominus, 11; CIC, canon 369.

(214) Cf. CIC, canon 276, § 2, n. 5o; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 26, 4: l.c., 703.

(215) John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 36, quoting Propositio 5 of the Synodal fathers: l.c., 718.

(216) Cf. John Paul II, Allocution to the Roman Curia, 22 December 1987: AAS 80 (1988), pp. 1025-1034; Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem, 27: AAS 80 (1988), p. 1718.

(217) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 29b.

(218) His rationibus in mysteriis Christi Eiusque missione fundatis, coelibatus ...omnibus ad Ordinem sacrum promovendis lege impositum est": Second Vatican Council, Decree Presbyterorum Ordinis, 16; cf. CIC, canon 247, § 1; canon 277, § 1, canon 1037.

(219) Cf. CIC, canon 277, § 1; Second Vatican Council, Decree Optatam Totius, 10.

(220) John Paul II, Letter to Priests on Holy Thursday, 8 April 1979, 8: AAS 71 (1979), p. 408.

(221) Cf. canon 277, § 2.

(222) John Paul II, Allocution to the permanent deacons of the U.S.A. in Detroit (19 September 1987), n. 5: Insegnamenti, X, 3 (1987), p. 658.

(223) Cf. CIC, canon 1031, § 2.

(224) John Paul II, Allocution to the permanent deacons of the USA in Detroit, 19 September 1987, n. 5; Insegnamenti, X, 3 (1987), pp. 658-659.

(225) Cf. CIC, canon 277, § 1.

(226) Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, III, 16: l.c., 701: Apostolic Letter Ad Pascendum, VI: l.c., 539; CIC, canon 1087. Provision is made for possible exceptions to this discipline in the circular letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, N. 26397, of 6 June 1997, n. 8.

(227) John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, n. 42.

(228) John Paul II, Catechesis at the General Audience of 20 October 1993, n. 4: Insegnamenti, XVI, 2 (1993), p. 1056.

(229) Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, II, 8-10; III, 14-15: l.c., 699-701; Apostolic Letter Ad Pascendum, VII: l.c., 540; CIC, canons 236, 1027, 1032 § 3.

(230) Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 70: l.c., 780.

(231) John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 70: l.c., 779.

(232) John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 76; 79: l.c., 793; 796.

(233) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Decree Christus Dominus, 15; John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 79: l.c., 797.

(234) Congregation for the Clergy, Tota Ecclesia, Directory for the ministry and life of priests (31 January 1994), n. 71: p. 76.

(235) Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, 78: l.c., 795.

(236) Congregation for the Clergy, Directory for the ministry and life of priests Tota Ecclesia, 71: p. 76.

(237) Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, 71: l.c., 783; Congregation for the Clergy, Directory for the ministry and life of priests, Tota Ecclesia, n. 74, p. 78.

(238) Cf. St Ignatius of Antioch: "Deacons, who are ministers of Christ Jesus, must be acceptable to all in every respect. They are not servants of food and drink. They are ministers of the Church of God" (Epist. ad Trallianos, 2, 3: F. X. Funk, o.c., I, pp. 244-245).

(239) Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, 72: l.c., 783; Congregation for the Clergy, Directory for the ministry and life of priestly, Tota Ecclesia, 75, ed. cit., pp. 75-76.

(240) John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, 72: l.c., 785.

(241) Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, VI, 28: l.c., 703; CIC, canon 276, § 4.

(242) Cf. CIC, canon 279.

(243) John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, 72: l.c., 783.

(244) Cf. CIC, canon 1029.